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Music and Aural Skills Development 1: Tonic Solfa


Table of Contents

Exercises on Scales Major Scales: Ionian, Pentatonic scales using tonic solfa will be relevant and help to improve fingering and aural skills.

Play all the exercises, on all the 12 keys.

Repeat the exercise as many times as possible on different rhythms: semibreve-4 beats; minim-2 beats; crotchet-1 beat; Quaver-½ beat and semiquaver beat-¼ beat.


  1. (i) d r m f s

(ii) d m s

(iii) d r m s

(iv) d r f s

(v) d s r s

(vi) dr dm df ds

Play the following in ascending and descending order

  1. (i) d r m f s l t d¹ t l s f m r d

(ii) d r m f s f m r d

(iii) d  r m f s l t d        R.H                           Contrary motion (for keyboard)

d¹ t l s f m r d.         L. H


  1. (i) dr dm df ds dl dt dd¹ / d¹d td ld sd fd md rd  (Quaver)

(ii) dm rf ms fl st ld tr¹ d¹m¹/ m¹d¹ r¹t dl ts lf s mfr md

(iii) drm  rmf  mfs  fsl  slt  ltd¹  td¹r¹  d¹r¹m¹    (Triplets)   →

m¹r¹d¹   r¹d¹t   d¹tl   tls   lsf   sfm  fmr  mrd          ←

(iv) drmf rmfs mfsl fslt sltd    ltd¹r¹   td¹r¹m¹  (Semiquavers)

m¹r¹d¹t¹    r¹d¹tl d¹    tlsf   lsfm   sfmr  fmrd


  1. (i)  dm rs ml sd¹ lr¹ d¹m¹   m¹d¹ r¹l d¹s lm sr md

(ii) ds rl md¹ sr¹ lm d¹s¹   s¹d¹ m¹l r¹s d¹m lr sd

(iii) drm    rms    msl    sld¹    ld¹r¹   d¹r¹m¹    m¹r¹d¹   r¹d¹l   d¹ls    lsm   smr   mrd

(iv) dsms  rlfl dsms   sr¹tr¹

[d¹ – 1st octave    d¹¹ – 2nd octave]


  1. (i) dms rfl  mst  fld¹  str¹  ld¹m¹   t r¹f¹  d¹m¹s¹

s¹m¹d¹   f¹r¹t   m¹d¹l  r¹ts  d¹lf  tsm  lfr  smd


(ii) dmsd¹  rflr¹  mstm¹  fld¹f¹ str¹s¹  ld¹m¹l¹  tr¹f¹t  d¹m¹s¹d¹¹

d¹¹ s¹m¹d¹    t¹f¹r¹t     l¹m¹d¹l   s ¹r¹ts   f¹d¹lf    m¹tsm   r¹lfr   d¹smd


(iii) d m s   m s d¹    s d¹ m¹         m¹ d¹ s   d¹ s m    s m d

fld       ld¹f¹     df¹l¹            l¹f¹d     f¹dl     dlf

ftr       t¹r¹s¹     rst             tsr        srt      rts




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